Marsh's MINIATURE AMERICAN SHEPHERDS, "Marsh's MAS" Located in Nova Scotia, Canada. Contact us: marshsmas@gmail.com

Orthopedic Disorders: `


Hip Dysplasia 

 
 
  • Canine hip dysplasia is the most common orthopaedic disease in dogs.
  • CHD is a degenerative, developmental condition, leading to painful hip osteoarthritis, stiffness, and diminished quality of life.
  • All dog breeds are affected by CHD
  •  In some breeds more than 50% of dogs are afflicted.
  • The disease is polygenic, multifactorial and is affected by environmental factors such as weight and age.


OFA rated "GOOD" Hips

We screen our breeding dogs for Hip Dysplasia before the dog is used in our Breeding program. We use either or both OFA and PennHip to screen for CHD depending on the individual dog and their pedigree etc. The inheritance of Hip Dysplasia is not completely understood. Two dogs tested  with no evidence of Hip Dysplasia can still produce affected offspring.  Thus, screening for CHD is merely a tool used to better match breeding pairs together, in hopes to lower the incidence of Hip Dysplasia from occurring in our MAS.



 


Elbow Dysplasia 

 
 

Elbow Dysplasia is term used to describe one or more inherited developmental abnormalities in a dog's elbow joint;

  • Ununited anconeal process (UAP)
  • Fragmented coronoid process (FCP)
  • Osteochrondrosis dissecans (OCD)
  • Elbow incongruency
These abnormalities can lead to degenerative joint disease, lameness and pain.


 OFA "NORMAL" elbows

 We have just begun health screening our dogs for Elbow Dysplasia using OFA in hopes to lower the incidence of Elbow Dysplasia from occurring in our MAS.



Patellar Luxation 

 
 

In Patellar Luxation, the kneecap luxates, or pops out of place, either in a medial or lateral position. Patellar Luxation can lead to degenerative joint disease, lameness and pain. 

We have just begun health screening our dogs for Patellar Luxation using OFA in hopes to lower the incidence of Patellar Luxation from occurring in our MAS.

 


Examples of OFA / PennHip certificates for
 Hip/Elbow Dysplasia and Patellar  Luxation


 



Eye Disorders with DNA tests:


PRCD - PRA 
(Progressive Rod Cone Degeneration - Progressive Retinal Atrophy)


 PRCD is a form of PRA, a late onset, inherited eye disease that causes cells in the retina of the eye to degenerate slowly and eventually die. The "rod" cells degenerate first causing night blindness. Then the "cone" cells will slowly degenerate leading to full vision loss.

Dogs need two copies of the PRCD gene to be affected. Affected dogs appear healthy as puppies, but Most will eventually go blind.

Often misdiagnosed by eye exam, it is recommended that all dogs be DNA tested before breeding.

***We currently test our breeding dogs for PRCD

 


 HSF4 - HC
 Hereditary Cataracts

 
 

Cataracts are a clouding of the lens of the eye caused by a breakdown of tissue. Not all cataracts are hereditary and Not all hereditary cataracts are caused by the HSF4 gene. Not every dog that has the HSF4 mutation will develop cataracts. Instead, having 1 or 2 copies of the HSF4 gene mutation significantly increases the dogs risk of developing bilateral posterior cataracts.

The cataracts caused by the HSF4 gene usually start off small in the back of the lens and progressively develop over time. Some affected dogs will retain functional vision throughout their entire life, while other affected dogs will quickly progress to complete blindness.  

***We currently test our breeding dogs for HSF4



CEA - CH
Collie Eye Anomaly - Choroidal Hypoplasia

 
 

 Any dog with 2 copies of the NHEJ1 gene will have some form of bilateral choroidal hypoplasia. The Choroid is a layer of vascular tissue in the eye responsible for supplying blood and nutrients to the retina. Dogs affected with CEA have choroids that did not develop properly with severity varying from dog to dog.  CEA is present at birth and does Not progress.

 Mildly affected dogs only have some thinning of the choroid and retain functional vision. Severely affected dogs may have additional eye disorders; iris colobomas, nerve colobomal/stapholma, microphthalmia "small eye", intraocular hemorrhage, retinal detachment, to complete blindness. 

Diagnosis can only be made by a Veterinarian Ophthalmologist BEFORE the dog is 8 weeks of age, or by DNA testing for the NHEJ1 gene.



 

CMR1
Canine Multifocal Retinopathy

 
 
CMR1 causes tan/orange to grey colored lesions/blister like defects in the retina which appear around 11- 16 weeks of age. They are typically found in both eyes and each case varies in amount, size and location. Some cases are mild (given Breeders option) and will clear up on their own over time. Other cases are more severe with retinal detachment leading to some form of vision impairment to complete blindness. DNA tests for the CMR1 gene are available. Dogs with severe symptoms of CMR1 should not be bred. Dogs diagnosed with CMR1 but retain normal vision should only be bred to clear- tested mates.

 DNA tests for the CMR1 gene are available. Dogs with severe symptoms of CMR1 should not be bred. Dogs diagnosed with CMR1 but retain normal vision should only be bred to clear- tested mates.



 CD
Cone Degeneration

 
 

CD causes the "cone" cells in the retina of the eye to degenerate, resulting in Day- Blindness. CD can be diagnosed between 8 - 12 weeks of age (once the retina is fully developed). A puppy will quickly go day- blind and become sensitive to bright light, finding it irritating and even painful. CD does not affect Night- Vision. Affected dogs are able to see at night and in dimly lit areas.


 


 

MDR1 
Multi-Drug Resistance 1

 
 

MDR1 is a gene mutation that creates a sensitivity to certain drugs. Dogs affected with MDR1 are defective in their ability to limit drug distribution (particularly in the brain), and also have delayed excretions of drugs that make them susceptible to severe drug toxicity.

 The severity of the reaction depends on the dosage given and if the dog is only a carrier of MDR1 or fully affected, seizures and death can occur.

  • Dogs that are affected by MDR1 will have a sensitivity to certain drugs.  
  • Dogs that are carriers of MDR1 may experience some sensitivity to certain drugs.
  • Dogs that test clear for MDR1 should not exhibit any drug sensitivities. 

 Approximately 50% of MAS have at least 1 mutated MDR1 gene.

***We currently test our breeding dogs for MDR1

 


 

DM
 Degenerative Myelopathy

 
 

DM is a autoimmune disease that attacks the myelin, the "insulation" of the nerves in the spinal cord, causing progressive paralysis. DM is a late on set disease, appearing around 8 years of age in Miniature American Shepherds.  

Symptoms start off with a lack of coordination in the hind limbs; dogs will have an unsteady gait, will wobble and begin to drag their back feet. Within 6-12 months from onset, most dogs are paraplegic and can no longer walk. If allowed to progress, the dog will develop urinary and fecal incontinence and loose respiratory function. Thankfully, DM is not a painful disease.. BUT there is not treatment for DM and life ends in euthanasia.

 A new DNA test is available that detects a risk factor gene. Not every dog with 2 copies of the DM gene will develop symptoms, but those diagnosed with DM will ALL have 2 copies of the gene.

 

These are the 3 companies that we most recommend for your DNA Health Testing:


Paw Print Genetics Offers DNA Health Testing for: PRCD, HSF4, MDR1, CMR1, CD, DM



GenSol Diagnostics Offers DNA Health Testing for: PRCD, CEA, HSF4, MDR1, CMR1, DM



Optigen Offers DNA Health Testing for: PRCD, CEA, CMR1, CD




Marsh's MINIATURE AMERICAN SHEPHERDS, "Marsh's MAS" Located in Nova Scotia, Canada. Contact us: marshsmas@gmail.com